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Considerations for Injury Prevention: Hydration and its influence on the fascia system

Over the past few years we have heard more about hydration, hydration drinks and powders like Liquid IV and Prime. However, are we overlooking how hydration influences our fascia and its link to injuries?

Fascia is a complex, interconnected system within the body, playing a crucial role in human movement and overall health. It's a specialized system of the body that has an appearance similar to a web or a sweater. Fascia is made up of several key components, each contributing to its unique properties and functions:

Fibrous Connective Tissue:

Fascia is primarily composed of fibrous connective tissue. This tissue contains elongated fibroblast cells that produce a dense matrix of collagen fibers. The collagen fibers give fascia its strength and flexibility, allowing it to provide structural support and transmit mechanical forces.

Extracellular Matrix (ECM):

The extracellular matrix is a complex network of proteins (including collagen and elastin) and polysaccharides. This matrix surrounds the cells within the fascia, providing a supportive and protective environment. The ECM is crucial for the tensile strength and elasticity of fascia, enabling it to withstand and distribute mechanical stress throughout the body.

Ground Substance:

The ground substance is a gel-like material that fills the space between the fibers and cells within the fascia. It is composed of water, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and proteoglycans. The ground substance acts as a lubricant, facilitating the smooth movement of muscles and other structures, and plays a role in nutrient transport and waste removal.


Elastin fibers are less abundant than collagen fibers in fascia but are essential for its elastic properties. Elastin allows fascia to stretch and return to its original length, contributing to the flexibility and resilience of the connective tissue.

Nervous Tissue:

Fascia contains a rich supply of sensory nerve endings, making it an important sensory organ. These nerve endings help in proprioception (the sense of the relative position of neighboring parts of the body) and the perception of pain, contributing to the body's ability to respond to internal and external stimuli.

The fascial system is continuous throughout the body, enveloping and interpenetrating muscles, bones, organs, nerves, and blood vessels. This interconnectedness allows fascia to play a critical role in supporting posture, providing protection, and influencing the efficiency and coordination of movement.

Now let's dive a little deeper into some of the influences of hydration:

The ground substance within fascia is a critical component that significantly influences the physical properties and functional capabilities of the fascial system. It's a highly hydrated, gel-like matrix that occupies the spaces between the fibrous components and cells in connective tissue, serving several vital functions:

Lubrication and Movement:

The gel-like nature of the ground substance allows for the smooth gliding of fascial tissues against each other. This lubrication is crucial for the efficient movement of muscles, tendons, and ligaments, minimizing friction and preventing tissue damage during physical activities. It enables the fascial network to facilitate a wide range of motions, supporting the dynamic movements required in daily activities and sports performance.


The high water content in the ground substance helps maintain the hydration of the fascial tissues. Proper hydration is essential for the elasticity and pliability of fascia, affecting its ability to stretch, recoil, and adapt to physical stresses. Dehydration of the ground substance can lead to decreased flexibility, increased stiffness, and a heightened risk of injury.

Hydration at the cellular level is a complex process influenced by various factors such as hormones, nutrients, and oxidative stress, and plays a crucial role in regulating cell function and metabolism.

The cellular hydration state can change rapidly and is managed by ion and substrate transport systems in the plasma membrane, which are influenced by external stimuli like hormones and substrate availability.

An increase in cellular hydration acts as an anabolic signal promoting growth and proliferation, while cell shrinkage has catabolic effects, potentially increasing the susceptibility to stress-induced damage. Hydration impacts protein synthesis and degradation, with cell swelling enhancing protein synthesis and reducing degradation, thereby influencing overall protein turnover in the body.

One effective way to hydrate at the cellular level involves maintaining a balance in electrolyte and fluid intake to support the cellular transport systems that regulate hydration status. Drinking water is essential, but for optimal hydration, especially under conditions of intense physical activity or heat exposure, beverages containing electrolytes (like sodium and potassium) can help maintain electrolyte balance and improve hydration status more effectively than water alone.

Furthermore, the consumption of foods high in water content (fruits and vegetables) can also contribute to cellular hydration by providing both fluids and nutrients necessary for maintaining the function of transport systems and overall cellular health.

Companies like Liquid IV make ready to use packets for on the go. We recommend something like these when before practicing and training.

Nutrient Transport and Waste Removal:

The ground substance acts as a medium through which nutrients and metabolic byproducts are exchanged between the blood and the cells within the fascial tissues. This exchange is vital for the nourishment and metabolic health of the cells, facilitating tissue repair and regeneration. Efficient nutrient transport and waste removal are crucial for maintaining the overall health and functionality of the fascial system and the structures it envelops.

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and Proteoglycans:

These molecules are key components of the ground substance, contributing to its unique properties. GAGs are long, unbranched polysaccharides that attract and retain water, enhancing the hydration and viscoelasticity of the ground substance.

Proteoglycans, composed of a core protein and one or more GAG chains, provide structural integrity and resilience, allowing the fascial tissue to withstand compressive forces. Together, these molecules regulate the permeability of the ground substance, influencing the flow of fluids and the movement of molecules within the extracellular matrix.

The properties of the ground substance can be influenced by various factors, including age, physical activity, hydration status, and disease. Changes in the composition or properties of the ground substance can affect the functional behavior of the fascial system, impacting flexibility, movement efficiency, and susceptibility to injury.

Understanding the role and characteristics of the ground substance is essential for developing effective strategies in physical training, rehabilitation, and injury prevention, especially for professionals focusing on human movement and athletic performance.

In the end injury prevention isn't about just one thing, rather than a combination of systemic roles your body plays in your development as an athlete.

In fact the term Injury Prevention needs to be rephrased as Injury Reduction and Recovery.

We are trying something new and wanted to gain insights on how the information we post about is helpful and practical for you to use.

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